Dr. W. D. L. Fernado
Warusahennadige David Lionel Fernando was born on 18th November 1914 and schooled at Nalanda Vidyalaya Colombo. Having obtained the Cambridge Senior Certificate which exempted him from the London Matriculation, he entered Medical College. He qualified with Honours in 1940 as a Licenciate in Medicine, Surgery and Midwifery which was a registrable qualification with the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom. This was two years prior to the amalgamation of the Medical College with the University College to form the University of Ceylon after which the degree was called MBBS.
After qualifying, he served as a Government Medical Officer in various parts of the island doing curative work and also a period in the preventive sector.
In 1950 he came back to the General Hospital Colombo as Assistant Pathologist. In the next year, 1951, he was awarded a Government Scholarship and proceeded to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Edinburgh. The University of Edinburgh was the first to establish a Chair in Medical Jurisprudence in the English-speaking world, by a commission issued by King George III.
The incumbent Professor had been appointed to the Regius Chair in 1927 after gaining experience in Egypt. By the time Dr. Fernando commenced training, Professor Sydney Smith had been knighted as he had achieved national reputation as a Forensic Pathologist. He was the second and the last to be knighted for achievements in forensic medicine to date. Dr. Fernando achieved Membership of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh with Forensic Medicine as a Special subject. Before returning to Ceylon he worked with Professor John Glaister at Glasgow, and in London, with Dr. Keith Simpson at Guy's Hospital and Dr. Donald Teare at St. George's Hospital both of whom were awarded personal chairs later by the University of London.
Having returned home from the U.K. in 1953, Dr. Fernando functioned as Assistant Judicial Medical Officer Colombo. Up to this time, he was known to his batch mates, colleagues and friends as 'David'. It was later that he was better known as 'WDL' for which the lawyers were responsible. In 1953 and 1954 Professor Sir Sydney Smith came to Ceylon as a WHO Consultant, to advice the Government in setting up a Medico Legal Service and training of personnel. WDL assisted his teacher in performing this task.
In 1956 WDL was appointed J.M.O. Colombo and continued in this capacity up to his retirement in 1970. Although designated J.M.O. Colombo, he was, in fact, J.M.O. Ceylon as he was called upon by the police and the courts to assist in complicated cases. It was not unusual for courts to summon him at very short notice, to obtain his opinion on a trial that was proceeding.
It was during his tenure of office that the Medico Legal Morgue was established and equipped with refrigeration for storage of bodies. The Office of the J.M.O which was housed in a part of the building of the Colonial Library, facing Maradana Road, was also moved to the same premises in Francis Road. The housing of the office, laboratory and the autopsy room with provision of coolers to store the bodies was of great significance, as it obviated the previous practice of the J.M.O. and his Assistants having to do autopsies in several hospitals in Colombo and in five mortuary rooms at five police stations within the city. Only the General Hospital Mortuary had refrigeration facilities up to that time.
During his long and distinguished career, he was involved in some famous criminal cases. In 1959 a body of a young woman was found dead lying across the road between the jungle stretch of the Puttalam/Anuradhapura Road at Thimbiriwewa. WDL was called to do the post mortem of the unidentified body and found injuries to conclude that the body had been run over at least twice.
There were also injuries of the head from which he definitely concluded that this was not a death due to a traffic accident. On the question of identification, a large cavity in the lower jaw found at autopsy was traced back to treatment taken by the deceased at the Dental Clinic at Kandy for a dental abscess. Forensic Odontology is now a specialised subject and is widely used in disaster identification.
The skull and lower jaw of Adeline Withane was separated from the body and taken to Colombo. WDL got the assistance of Mr. George Webster of the University Forensic Department to do a superimposition of the skull and jaw with an enlarged photograph of the deceased, which matched. Another notable feature in this case was that the accused, a teacher by the name of Anandagoda, revisited the scene of crime the following day, covering a distance of about 270 miles to reassure himself that the crime would pass undetected. This case was referred to as the Wilpattu Murder. Another case in which WDL played a prominent role is in the conviction of Alfred de Zoysa in the murder of A. K .D. Perera and burning his body in the Kalattawa jungle. In this case there was no body to do a post mortem examination.
What he was asked to examine were 123 pieces of charred bones collected by the Head Quarter's Inspector, S. B. W. de Silva, of Anuradhapura in March 1967. Another 100 pieces found by the Government Analyst at the site were also forwarded to WDL. From these productions, WDL was able to identify that some of the bones were human and that some pieces were from the human skull.
In this, he sought the assistance of Professor Lester Jayawardena of the Anatomy Department of the Medical College. The notable feature in this case was that there was no body as such and the myth that it is necessary to have a body to establish murder was proved false. Superb team work between the Forensic Scientist of the Government Analyst's Department along with the JMO and an Anatomist from the University, and the investigative skills of the Police, led by the Anuradhapura HQI, resulted in the conviction of Alfred de Zoysa and his accomplices. A number of other notable cases in which he figured are on record and WDL in his Foundation Lecture of the Ceylon College of Physicians spoke on the topic 'Dead Men Tell Tales'.
WDL did the second post mortem on the body of the nurse, Lillian Perera, who was strangled and rendered unconscious before being thrown into the Weerawila Tank to drown in the early hours of January 31st 1956.
Mr. L. V. Podiappuhamy, alias Dodampe Mudalali of Ratnapura, was taken to the fourth floor of the Secretariat Building on 15.4.1966 in connection with an alleged coup d'etat against the Government. In the early hours of the 16th, Dodampe Mudalali fell to his death from the fourth floor and WDL did the post mortem in this case. He concluded that death was due to injuries sustained as a result of a fall from a height.
The Magistrate held an inquest and returned a verdict of suicide. Thereafter, more evidence was led and the Magistrate altered the verdict of suicide to one of culpable suicide. Although Inspector Seneviratne of the C.I.D made an application to the Supreme Court for revision of the verdict, Justice Tennakoon refused the application but made critical comments on the conduct of the inquest which were of great legal importance.
Although a Commission of Inquiry was held later into the circumstances of Dodampe Mudalali's death, WDL's findings and conclusions were not flawed.
Another case of interest is the case of the murder of two children, a brother and sister and the disposal of the two bodies by the mother and her paramour under the hearth. Much later when the bodies were discovered, WDL travelled to Anurahdapura and recovered the mummified bodies. He was able to make an identification, state the age and show that both had been malnourished. These two bodies are preserved in the Museum of the Office of the JMO Colombo.
In whatever capacity he functioned, WDL showed devotion to the subject and was meticulous in observing the highest standards that were expected of the office he held.
WDL held many prestigious positions. He was President of the Sri Lanka Medical Association, President of the Medico-Legal Society, President, Ceylon Cancer Society, Vice President, Ceylon Medical Council, Vice President, Ceylon College of Physicians, Vice President, Organization of Professional Associations and President of the GMOA.
He was a good family man and conformed to all moral obligations assisted by his charming wife, Ethel and daughter, Kamalini, who was born in Edinburgh. He would have been proud of his daughter's progress in her career in the Ministry of Justice and that of his son-in-law in the Attorney General's Department. WDL fulfilled all the expectations of his teacher and confidant, Professor Sir Sydney Smith, as expressed to this writer in Edinburgh.
Men of his calibre, are indeed, rare to find.
Dr. W. D. L. Fernando Memorial Oration Note on the speaker
Professor Kasinathan Nadesan, Professor in Forensic Pathology at the University of Malaya, will be delivering the 17th Dr. W. D. L. Fernando Memorial Oration on Victims of Violence on Friday, 30th May 2003 at 5.30 p.m. at the Medical Research Institute (MRI) Auditorium, Borella, Colombo 8.
Professor Nadesan is the first to be appointed to a Chair in Forensic Pathology in Malaysia. He has written extensively on the subject of Victims of Violence and presented many Papers to Malaysian and International audiences.
Prof. Nadesan is also Consultant Forensic Physician at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. He graduated from the Medical Faculty in 1973 and obtained the MD Forensic Medicine from the Colombo University. He achieved the MRC Path (UK) and also became a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. He has a Diploma in Medical Jurisprudence from London. Prior to his departure to Malaysia in 1995, he was the Consultant JMO Colombo South up to 1991 and thereafter, JMO Kandy. He counts twenty seven years of practice in Forensic Medicine and has numerous publications to his credit.
Of the sixteen orations, seven have been delivered by Professors of Forensic Medicine in the U.K. and one from Singapore. The other orations were delivered by Sri Lankans who knew Dr. W. D. L. Fernando. Professor Nadesan is the first of the second generation orators who had no personal contact with Dr. Fernando.
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